Dance

Culture

With its combinations of indigenous, African, and European influences, the Southeastern region of Brazil has a diverse culture, reflected in its dances and most popular rhythms. The most famous are:

Samba
The samba is the most well-known of all Brazilian dances, a musical tradition that stems from the country’s African enslaved people. It first appeared in Bahia but gained popularity nationwide, particularly in Rio de Janeiro, known as the Land of Samba. In Wonderful City, the samba caught the Brazilian imagination while taking on influences from other musical styles, such as the maxixe, polka, and more. Immensely popular these days, it is the official dance of the world’s biggest carnival, which takes place annually in Rio. A spin-off, Samba de Roda, originated in Bahia but caught on in the Southeast. The dancers organise themselves into a circle while chanting and clapping. Instruments used include the Berimbau, congas, rattles, and tambourines.

Pagode
Highly popular in São Paulo and Rio, pagode is a variant of samba that first emerged in the 1980s. It is exemplified by its simplicity, recurring themes of lament and romance, and slower beat than samba.

Funk
A product of Rio’s streets, the carioca funk style has become popular all over the country in recent decades, with some of its stars gaining international fame. It initially took its inspiration from the Miami Bass beats of the 1980s and nowadays is associated with its notoriously overt, over-sexualised dancing and lyrics.

Bossa Nova
Another samba derivation—but with a dash of American jazz—the Boss Nova was all about Rio’s bohemian scene and saw its heyday in the 50s. Some of Brazil’s most outstanding artists were proponents of the Bossa, which emphasises smooth guitar playing and follows the pace of a slow samba. Perhaps the most famous example is the Tom Jobim classic “Girl from Ipanema.”

Xiba
Once a big hit in the state of Rio de Janeiro, the beat is less well-known these days. The xiba is danced with special clogs, with the male and female dancers forming a circle. The women sing out short phrases, and the men beat their clogs and make a lot of noise.

Dança do Tamanduá (Dance of the Anteater)
In this traditional dance from the state of Espírito Santo, men and women form a circle with one person in the centre, and everyone follows that person’s lead. The music is improvised and starts with a singer.

Caxambu
This traditional dance from the state of Minas Gerais is performed by men and women, not necessarily in pairs. One person enters the centre of a ring formed by the other participants, acting as the choreographer. The performers’ intone chants and play tambourines are made from tree trunks.

Mineiro-pau
Another dance from the state of Minas Gerais is performed by men. They use wooden sticks and alternate between forming circles and lines while beating their sticks on the ground. These beats have specific names, such as ‘in four’, ‘up high’, and ‘down low’.

Jongo
An African inheritance from São Paulo, it is characterised by a circle of male and female dancers. A soloist sings a song while others clap their hands and move to the rhythms of tambourines and rattles.

The rhythms and dances of the Northeast are so rich in variety that they demand a much larger section to describe them. Here, you can find out more about some of the most popular and famous cultural traits of North-eastern Brazil, many of which have historic roots steeped in symbolism:

Baião
Originating in the North-eastern sertão (a vast, semi-arid region in North-eastern Brazil), the baiao is now known all over Brazil, thanks to the accordion playing Luiz Gonzaga, from Pernambuco, who recorded his first big hit in 1946 and opened the doors for similar artists to gain fame and fortune. With its binary rhythm and striking melodies, played on the accordion, agogo and triangle, the genre still strongly influences today’s musicians. The dance goes in pairs, who take steps called balanceios, heel steps, crouches and spins. The women wear printed cotton dresses adorned with frills, lots of cleavage and colourful sandals. The men wear light denim trousers, austere shirts and rawhide sandals.

Capoeira
Capoeira is a cultural expression used in martial arts, playfulness, and dance rituals. It arrived in Brazil in the 16th century with the Angolan enslaved people, who were mainly brought over to the states of Bahia and Pernambuco. Noteworthy for the participants’ interaction level, who form a circle around performing pairs, with rapid interchanges and brutal acrobatic kicks, flips and spins, capoeira is played to the sound of berimbaus, chants and hand claps. It has become popular all over the country.

Frevo
The main attraction of the Pernambuco carnival, frevo is a collective dance known for its syncopated, aggressive, wild march, which keeps going until the dancers’ boil’ – ‘ferver’, in Portuguese, and the locals have a distinctive way of pronouncing the word, which explains the slightly different spelling. The dance is symbolised by an umbrella, which prevents the dancers from losing their balance. Interestingly, the dance is about individuality; there are no set steps, and everyone dances their way. You rarely see two people dancing the same way, which makes the spectacle even more enjoyable.

Maracatu
The maracatu came to Brazil from Africa, originating at the Congolese coronation ceremonies, to demonstrate strength and power. The rhythm goes to the beat of percussion, starting with a baque virado, a ‘twisted hit’. The dance has a significant historical meaning, symbolising the resistance to slavery. Nowadays, the maracatu is a common sight at the Pernambuco carnival.

Reisado
Portuguese in origin and famous in Piauí, the reisado is so-called because it is celebrated on the eve of the Day of Kings (Dia de Reis). Between 24 December and 6 January, a group of musicians, singers, and dancers go from door to door announcing the Messiah’s arrival, praising those who open their doors. The dance first appeared in Brazil in the state of Sergipe during the Portuguese colonisation, and these days, it can be danced at any time of year, with the themes revolving around love, war, and religion, among others. A reisado performance usually features a particular group of characters, such as a king, a master, a foreman and youngsters, who perform to the sound of accordions, a ganzá rattle, a zabumba bass drum, a triangle and a tambourine.

Cateretê
Also known as the catira, the cateretê is an Indigenous dance heavily used by Padre Anchieta, who translated catholic texts into Tupi, whilst native Americans would dance and sing religious songs. There are no traditional outfits; performers wear their everyday clothes. Different regions have different versions of the dance, but generally, there are two rows, with men on one side and women on the other, who tap their feet to the beat of hand claps and guitar whilst the guitarists sing melodies.

Congada
Popular in many states, the congada comes from Catholicism, mixed with African tales of the king of Angola, Gola Bândi. The presentation tells a story of enslaved people with magic powers, forepersons, ladies-in-waiting and warriors, who escort the king and queen to church, where they are coroneted. During the procession, the dancers perform war-like movements, using the sound of guitars, congas, and reco-reco scrapers.

Coco
A traditional African dance from the state of Alagoas, the coco is now famous all over the Northeast, where it has many names and incarnations. It is usually sung and accompanied by the tapping of feet or the stamping of horses’ hooves. The coordinator intones traditional songs, which the singers repeat.

Xaxado
A popular dance from the sertão, the xaxado received its name thanks to the sound made by the sandals used by the cangaceiros (resistance fighters), who celebrated the victories of the Lampião group, whose leader was known as the King of Cangaço. Originally a male-only dance, with satirical lyrics sung to the fast beating of a rifle on the ground, Luís Gonzaga popularised the genre, playing it on radio, TV and at theatres.

Maculelê
Traditional in Bahia, the maculelê originated with the colonisers and was a way of celebrating a good harvest. It is performed by men who dance and sing to the orders of a leader called the mascot, who commands the choir to the sounds of sticks, congas, tambourines, and guitars.

Forró
Another rhythm which became famous all over Brazil in the 40s, thanks to Luiz Gonzaga, the forró inspires several tales as to the origins of its name: some say it refers to the African term forrobodó, which means party, mess; others say it has to do with the legendary “For All” parties, thrown by the English engineers for the North-eastern railroad workers, who built the Great Western Railway at the beginning of the 1900s. Whatever the origins of its name, what matters is whether or not you can dance. Its ‘two steps here – two steps back’ to the sound of the big zabumba drum, the triangle and the accordion has become so popular that its name is synonymous with the kind of party where anyone can dance whatever rhythm or style they like.

Noted for its European immigrants from Germany, Italy and Portugal in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, who mixed with immigrants from other states, as well as taking on influences from Uruguay and Argentina in the Gaucho regions, the South of Brazil has a host of traditional dances, with the highlights being:

Vaneirão/Vaneira/Vaneirinha
Common in Rio Grande do Sul, it originated in Havana, Cuba. The name changes depending on the rhythm – if it is slow, it is Vaneirinha; fast, Vaneirão and moderate, Vaneira. The steps are based on a two-step, with four movements in each direction.

Chimarrita
A traditional Portuguese dance, it was brought to Rio Grande do Sul during the 19th century. At first, it resembled a waltz. With time, pairs started to dance in other directions, separately. Sometimes, couples dance together in a more well-known ‘two here and there’. In some movements, the man, known as a peão, and the woman, called a prenda, slightly bend their knees.

Milonga
Widespread in Argentina and Uruguay, the milonga is accompanied by a guitar and other instruments in Rio Grande do Sul. The milonga from this region looks like a Tango but is slower and more romantic. There are three ways to dance:

  • Havaneirada (to the same steps as a vaneira)
  • Tangueada (a march-like rhythm)
  • Rio-grandense (a two/one-step)

Chula
Only performed by men, a lance is placed down on the ground, and three performers stand around it. They stamp their feet, and after a specific routine has been performed to the sound of a traditional accordion, the next dancer takes his turn, with each performer gradually making things more difficult. The winner is the performer deemed to have executed the most difficult routine.

Dança do Pezinho
Portuguese in origin, it is popular in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. In addition to dancing, performers must sing to the rhythm of the accompanying music.

Boi de Mamão
Also known as the bumba-meu-boi, the boi-bumbá, boi-de-cara-preta, among others. In Santa Catarina, the dance is more playful and light-hearted than in the North and Northeast.

Dança do Vilão
It is part of Santa Catarina’s folklore. The dance has diverse features, including benchmarks, beaters, and musicians—quite like the dance from the state of Goiás. The participants mark the rhythm with their sticks and move around one another. The movement of the sticks is all part of the show.

Ballina
It is also known as the Arcos Floridos (Florid Arches) or the Jardineira since the performers carry a bouquet of flowers. At the beginning of the dance, the pairs make a line and pass their bouquets above and below the other pairs. Next, groups of four pairs perform a different set of steps by forming a circle and crossing their arches, making up the balainhas.

Pau-de-Fitas
Brought by the German settlers to the region, the dance starts with a 3-metre mast in the ground, attached to an array of coloured ribbons. There must be an even number of performers, each holding onto a ribbon they can carry around the mast. The dance sees the ribbons make patterns as the performers move around the mast. Instruments such as small guitars, tambourines, accordions and regular guitars are used during the performance.

Fandango
Common along the coast of Paraná, the fandango has Iberian origins, having been brought over by the Portuguese. Upon arrival in Brazil, the dance was influenced by local indigenous traditions. It is also popular in the states of Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo. Instruments such as guitars, tambourines, and fiddle are played, and the lyrics are improvised. The performers form a ring and dance a waltz to the beat of hand clapping and foot taps.

German and Italian Dances
The south’s German and Italian influences can easily be seen in the dances performed at the traditional festivals held all over the region, such as the Oktoberfest in Blumenau, Santa Catarina, and the Grape Festival, in Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul.

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